Friday, March 17, 2017

1441 Main Street - Former Safeway

Place: Former Safeway
Address: 1441 Main Street
Architect: Wurster, Bernardi and Emmons
Opened: April 13, 1965
Size: Approx. 20,000 sq ft

When American grocery giant Safeway came to Canada in 1929, setting up their head office in Winnipeg, they brought with them a number of innovations to the retail grocery industry.

One was the “cookie cutter” store. All Safeways were built from scratch with the same exterior design and floor plan so that customers knew it was a Safeway instantly and that the same products could be found in the same locations, regardless of which store they went to. This lasted until the late 1960s.

Another was that Canada Safeway Ltd. owned their properties through an arm's length company and leased the stores back. This allowed for great flexibility when the retailer released new store models and needed to either move on to a bigger site or demolish old buildings.

Decamber 13, 1929, Winnipeg Tribune

The first Safeway in this area of the city was a block away from 1441 Main Street at Atlantic Avenue.

It was part of the second wave of Safeway stores built and opened on December 14, 1929. It was likely expanded in the 1930s or 40s as the building appears to be wider than other 1929 - 30s Safeways that still exist.

Top: December 18, 1950, Winnipeg Free Press

When the next generation of store was approved by head office the Main Street location was one of the first to be replaced. It was actually built on the next block, across Luxton, so that there was no interruption in business to Safeway customers when it opened on  December 19, 1950. 

This new Safeway cost about $125,000 before fixtures. It offered a self-serve meat department, eight check-out counters and off-street parking. To maximize floor space, many of the 1950 stores included a basement stock room. (The Food Fare at Portage and Burnell still retains the 1950s Safeway store look.)

In the 1960s, this location was notable for being the only Winnipeg store to be open from 9 am to 9 pm, six days a week. The others closed at 6 pm during the week and at at 9pm on Fridays and Saturdays.

North America cities saw a huge growth in suburban development in the 1950s and 1960s. Safeway's architects were tasked with finding a way to make their stores stand out to motorists who were now speeding by on regional roads and freeways.

Their solution was the eye-catching "Marina style" store, named after the location of the prototype which opened on Marnia Boulevard in San Francisco in 1959. Its unusual design included a front wall of glass and curved roof line. One variation of the Marina style was the so-called "gull wing" because of the upturn at the extremities of the roof.

A number of Marina style stores, perhaps a dozen, were constructed in Winnipeg in the early 1960s. Only a handful had the gull wing.

April 12, 1965, Winnipeg Tribune

This store was part of a wave of new Safeways being built around the city at the time and opened on April 13, 1965. It was built in the "back yard" of the existing store, some of the site was former industrial land left over from the city's street car terminal.

Once opened, the old store was demolished to provide the expansive parking area. The total site is approximately 1.4 acres in size.

Over the decades these Marina style stores were sold off as the grocer added larger, regional stores to its chain. They include: Ellice and Wall, the first Marina-style store built in the city which has been extensively renovated; Dakota Shopping Centre, (now Family Foods); Regent Avenue (now extra Foods) and Mountain and McGregor.

This store, however, was one of the last Marina style stores still inhabited by the retailer. (The other is Salter Street, which is still a Safeway, though it does not include the "gull wing" variation.)

February 14, 2014, Winnipeg Free Press

After Sobeys bought out Canada Safeway in 2013 the chain was required to sell this and three other Winnipeg stores to appease the Competition Bureau. Soon after, Red River Co-op announced that it would take over all of them, returning to the local grocery business after a more than 30-year absence.

When Co-op tried to renew its lease in May 2016 it was turned down and the building's future was again in doubt.

On February 10, 2017, The North West Company announced that 1441 Main Street will become Winnipeg's 15th Giant Tiger store. It is expected to open on November 18, 2017.

There's no word on what renovations to the store's interior or exterior will be done for the new tenant. As seen in the above links, the unique architecture of many of these Marina style Safeways has lived on with new owners and tenants, while others, such as at Ellice and Wall, have been renovated so much that they are unrecognizable.

North West Company media release of 1441 Main (Feb. 2017)
Red River Coop Announcement about closure (May 2016)

Winnipeg to lose another Marina Style Safeway? Dumplings (Jun 2016)
For more images of the Main and Luxton store, see my Flickr Album!

Tuesday, March 14, 2017

555 Ellice Avenue - Ellice Place

555 Ellice Avenue today
Place: Ellice Place
Address: 555 Ellice Avenue (Map)
Contractor: William Dyck and Sons Ltd.

Ellice Place was built in 1979 - 80 for the Manitoba Housing and Renewal Corporation, (MHRC). The site was assembled using a number of properties, most of which were made vacant by fire.

Haselmere Apartments Fire
January 18, 1974, Winnipeg Tribune

One was the site of the Haselmere Apartments at 559 Ellice. The block burned to the ground in January 1974 killing nine people and remains Winnipeg's second deadliest fire.

Lorraine Apartments Fire
Top: January 12, 1977, Winnipeg Free Press
Bottom: January 13, 1977, Winnipeg Tribune

Three years later, almost to the day, the Lorraine Apartments at number 543 Ellice, east of McMicken, also burned to the ground. Nobody was killed, though nine firemen were injured, four when a wall collapsed on them.

Both fires were due to arson.

November 4, 1978, Winnipeg Free Press

After the Lorraine Apartments fire, the MHRC purchased the vacant lots and in September 1977 went before the city to ask for a number of zoning variances, as what they were proposing was too large for the lot under existing rules.

They were seeking to build up to 125 units as well as obtain the air rights above McMicken Street so that a "corridor" could be built between the two sections of the development.
The variances were approved with the city imposing an eight storey height restriction on the project.

In November 1978,  the MHRC called for offers of development for the project. They chose an eight-storey, 122 suite design. Of those, 31 units would be dedicated to families and 72 for seniors. It also contained 1,500 square feet of retail space on the main floor.

February 15, 1979, Winnipeg Free Press

The project was formally announced in February, 1979 by Manitoba Housing minister J. Frank Johnston. It was one of five major projects around the province to be built that year.

The construction cost for the building was estimated to be $2.9 million and the contractor was William Dyck and Sons Ltd. The architect is unknown.

By December 1980, residents were living at 555 Ellice, though it is unclear when the formal opening took place.

One unique aspect of the building is that the "corridors" grew in width to include utility  areas and a multi-purpose room. This leaves a short tunnel at the end of McMicken Street at Ellice Avenue.

In November 2015 the provincial government announced that the building would received an $11 million renovation and would reopen as an 118 unit social housing and assisted living residence for seniors.

The reopening took place on March 13, 2017.

For more information about the new Ellice Place.

Friday, March 10, 2017

285 Beverley Street - Private Residence

Place: 285 Beverley Street
Address: 285 Beverley Street (Map)
Constructed ca.1908
Architect: Unknown
Contractor: Unknown

August 7, 1911, Manitoba Free Press

According to the city, the building permit was as issued for this two-storey, 1,474 square foot house in 1907, though it appears that it wasn’t lived in until 1909.

The first owner was Thomas Hodgson, a bartender at the Criterion Hotel. He rented out a number of rooms to folks such as Christina McInnis, stenographer at Diamond Flint Glass Co.; Jean McLean, clerk at T Eaton Co.; and M. McLean an engineer for the CPR.

By 1911, the owner was William Smith, an assistant superintendent at Prudential Insurance Co.. He, too, rented out rooms to the likes of: John Dand, bricklayer; J Dand, labourer at Arctic Ice; Christina McInnis stenographer; and Kate McLean, widow.

The string of short term owners with three or four lodgers lasted until 1920 when the Cann family moved in.

January 31, 1936, Winnipeg Tribune

Thomas Cann was born at Little Britain, Ontario in 1863. He married wife Nora at Lindsay, Ontario in 1886 and the couple came west three years later. Initially, they settled on a farm at Sydney, Manitoba and had two children, Horace and Edna. It is likely that they also raised nephews Sifton and George as well as niece, Grace.

The Cann family came to Winnipeg in 1918, first moving into the house next door at 283 Simcoe Street. In 1919 or 1920 they moved to number 285. For most of their time there they rented out one room.

July 19, 1935, Winnipeg Tribune

Cann eventually got into the commercial sign erecting business. Initially, the company must have been a small affair as it rarely advertised or was mentioned in the newspapers until the mid-1930s when it became known as Thomas Cann and Son.

On September 25, 1935, the home was the scene of the wedding of the Canns' niece, Margaret, to William Casson.

Thomas Cann lived in the house until about 1943 and died in 1948. It is unclear when Mrs. Cann died.

The company lived on through son, Horace and then his son, Don. The company's greatest claim to fame was that it was the installer of the Three Wise Men atop the Great West Life building from the time of their debut in 1973 to the mid 2010s.
Source: BillionGraves

Renting the suite in 1940 - 41 was the McCarthy family: Sylvester, Mary and teen-aged daughter Lucy (1926 - 2012).

Sylvester, born in Ireland,was a sergeant in the army. It is unclear where he served, though he is listed as living at the house in 1941 and would have been about 40, so he was likely not overseas.

On August 8, 1941, Mary, 36, died at the King George Hospital. As this was an isolation hospital, she may have contracted influenza or tuberculosis before her death.

It was a bad week for Sylvester as on August 1, 1941, his father also died at the Ottawa General Hospital.

It appears that the McCarthys did not stay at the house long after Mary's death. Sylvester survived the war, never remarried, and died in 1965.

October 1, 1964, Winnipeg Free Press

The house had a rather quiet existence in the decades after the war.

Through most of the 1950s the owners were the Henkels; Samuel, a carpenter, and wife Christina. They rented out two or three rooms at a time.

In the early 1960s, it was owned by Adolph Ludwig, a carpenter, and his wife Alma, a fabric cutter at LaSalle Furniture manufacturing. He died in 1961 or 1962 and Alma continued to live there until at least 1965, though she had briefly listed the house for sale in 1964.

In the early 1970s the home was home to the Rodrigues family; Domino, Odelia and their four children. They had come to Winnipeg form Portugal in 1960. In 1972, Domingo Rodrigues died at the home.

The past couple of decades have not been kind to the house.

In 1996, it was foreclosed on and sold at auction.

In 2011, it was closed down after it was found to be home to a marijuana grow operation.

The house was purchased but the necessary renovations were not done and it went up for sale again in 2013. A second renovation job was never completed and the house was sold at mortgage auction in early 2017.

The new owner has received planning permission to replace the home with a four-unit apartment building. Demolition is expected to start in Spring 2017.

Thursday, February 16, 2017

700 Elgin Avenue - Former Ellen Douglass School / Child Guidance Clinic

Place: Former Ellen Douglass School / Child Guidance Clinic of Winnipeg
Address: 700 Elgin Avenue (Map)
Opened: January 20, 1961
Architect: William Enns
Contractor: Arlington Builders
Cost: $476,000 (est)

This school was built specifically for the education of physically disabled children and was funded jointly by the Winnipeg School Division and the province's Department of Health and Social Services.

It was named for Dr. Mary Ellen Douglass (1878 - 1950), a well-respected physician who lobbied for women's health, mother-child programs and specialized programming for disabled children. (Read more about her here and here.) At the time it was rare for the school division to name a building after a local person. Their practice was to use place names or, in the case of senior schools, to alternate between Christian saints and British Lords.

Prior to the opening of Ellen Douglass School, disabled children had little chance for a proper education.

The city's network of aging, multi-storey schools could not accommodate them physically. Even if they could, there wasn't the specialized staff needed to teach them. Some urban school divisions offered a limited home tutoring service, while in rural areas there was often no services at all.
Top: Vanier lays cornerstone (Source: Winnipeg Tribune Collection)

The school's cornerstone was laid on April 28, 1960 by Governor General Georges Vanier. Known for his dedication to young people, he remarked at the ceremony: "This is a fine project and I hope an example that will be followed by many other parts of our country."

The two-storey, 46,000 sq ft structure was designed by William Enns, an in-house architect for the Winnipeg School Division who also designed St. John's and Kelvin High Schools. The contractors were Arlington Builders, also noted for educational buildings, including Riddell Hall and Sisler High School.

The school offered a full range of programming for elementary through to junior high children. There were six classrooms, a home ec kitchen, music room and art space. Some modifications had to be made in the design phase to cater to the students, such as extra wide door frames. In the finishing stages, handrails were installed in all of the hallways, sinks and mirrors were lowered and tilting blackboards were provided in some of the classrooms.

There was also office space for visiting psychologists, speech therapists, social workers and other specialized staff needed to meet the children's needs.

Crosland with students. June 22, 1967, Winnipeg Tribune.

The school opened on January 20, 1961 and in its first partial year of operation taught 49 students. By the 1963- 64 school year that number rose to 60 and by 1967 - 68, there were 84.

The principal for much of its first decade was Margaret Crosland, a graduate of the University of Manitoba. She would go on to earn her PhD at the University of Toronto and become the province's Assistant Director of Special Services with the Department of Education.

In 1961, the Ellen Douglass School Auxiliary started under the leadership of Mrs. S. Patterson.

This group, made up mainly of parents, hosted a variety of fundraising events and worked with social service agencies to raise money for the wide range of modified equipment, everything from kitchen electronics and typewriters to playground equipment, needed by the school.

Students on a  field trip. May 12, 1965, Winnipeg Tribune

The school and its students were received positively.

Field trips and special events were often covered by local media. Police Chief Robert Taft, who sometimes visited, once told a reporter: "It's humbling to come here and see the courage (of the children)."

In 1967, Princess Alexandra visited Kildonan Park for a Centennial celebration. A relay team made up of students from Ellen Douglas School wound its way through the park to present the Royal with the Manitoba coat of arms.

The building was also home to the Child Guidance Clinic of Greater Winnipeg, which opened on the second floor in January 1961.

The clinic was created in 1951 through the amalgamation of a number of existing services, including a child guidance department run by Winnipeg School Division No. 1 and child psychiatric and counselling services offered through the healthcare system. Its goal was to be able to assess, monitor and treat "problem children" through a single entity.

The services of the new clinic were available to all 105,000 students from all of the school divisions in Greater Winnipeg. Similar to Ellen Douglass School, it was funded jointly by the Winnipeg School Division and the province's Department of Health and Social Services.

November 4, 1960, Winnipeg Free Press

The pairing of these two institutions in one building was first proposed in 1958 and considered a "win - win" relationship.

Prior to this, the clinic was housed in the annex of Victoria Albert School but needed a permanent home as close to the Children's Hospital as possible. As this site was adjacent to hospital land, it was able to be connected by tunnel.

For the school portion, it is unlikely that the school division would have paid for the construction of a custom building for such a small number of students. So, not only did Ellen Douglass students get a new building, they also had immediate access to the many professional services offered by the clinic staff upstairs.

Top: May 6, 1967, Winnipeg Tribune
Bottom: June 13, 1979, Winnipeg Free Press

By 1963, the clinic had 70 staff serving about 8,500 children in the school system and needed more space. In 1969, they expanded into the building's basement, but soon found themselves tight on space again.

By the late 1960s, Ellen Douglass School was also overcrowded. More disabled children were entering the school system and there was a growing movement to have them attend community schools rather than specialized institutions.

During the 1977 - 78 school year, fifteen Ellen Douglass students were transferred to a renovated portion of Lord Roberts School. The trial run was deemed a success and the following year the remaining 45 students were transferred.

In September 1979, much of 700 Elgin Avenue's main floor was leased out to the International Centre primarily to provide English language classes for new immigrants.

May 6, 2015, Winnipeg Free Press

By the spring of 2015 the clinic had been renamed Clinical Support Services and was no longer located at 700 Elgin. In March of that year the school division put the building up for sale.             

In January 2017 it was announced that the WRHA, who are completing the new Women's Hospital adjacent to the school, offered to purchase 700 Elgin for $1.35 million, pending approval of the health minister. They did not specify what they intended to use the land for.

Also see:
My Flickr photo album of Ellen Douglass school.

700 Elgin Avenue - Winnipeg Architecture Foundation

Friday, January 27, 2017

563 Spence Street - Former Willard Hall

Place: Former 'Willard Hall'
Address: 563 Spence Street
Constructed: 1899
Architect: Unknown

The house at 563 Spence Street was built in 1899 as the family home of James G. Latimer, a contractor and future city alderman and controller. 

Latimer and his wife had already lived in Winnipeg for nearly 20 years and by the late 1890s just two of their eight sons, Bertram and Andrew, still lived at home.

January 6, 1900, Winnipeg Tribune

Mr. Latimer was elected to city council in 1900 and took on James Ashdown for the mayor’s chair in 1907.

It was expected that Ashdown would run unopposed as nobody wanted to take on one of the West’s most powerful businessmen. With just a couple of weeks to go before election day, Latimer threw his hat in the ring. (One Tribune story hints that he got talked into it by a group without his best interests at heart.)

Latimer seems to have received the "anybody but Ashdown" vote, including the tepid support of workers. The labour newspaper, The Voice, wrote: "Labour men may or may not vote for Latimer; they most assuredly will not vote for Ashdown."

In the end, Ashdown won by a vote of 5,091 to 2,352. 

Latimer continued to serve on the Board of Control until 1909. (The Board of Control was an elected body, similar to City Council, except they dealt with financial matters.)

September 17, 1907, Winnipeg Free Press

In 1907, Latimer and his wife moved to Edmonton Street and 563 Spence was sold to Horace Filmore. He had many jobs while living here, including the secretary of the Winnipeg Casket Co., manager of the Great Western Film Co. and, by 1912, was a real estate agent.

In 1912, the home became a rental property, initially as a seven room house then divided into a four suites as a rooming house.

October 12, 1916, Winnipeg Tribune

In September 1927, 563 Spence Street became known as Willard Hall, headquarters of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). It replaced an earlier Willard Hall that opened around 1910 in a home at 473 Balmoral Street.

Just as the WCTU had branches around North America, there were Willard Halls in dozens of cities -  Canada's largest appears to have been in Toronto. They were named for Frances Willard, a pioneering New York suffragist.

The WCTU and other women's groups used the downstairs as a meeting and lecture space. The upstairs contained four bedrooms that were rented out to young women, often from outside the city who came here to find work.

June 28, 1930, Winnipeg Tribune

In 1930, the WCTU rented the property to the Big Sisters Association of Greater Winnipeg, though they and other groups continued to use the home as a headquarters and meeting space for the next two decades.

The Big Sisters Association of Greater Winnipeg, established on November 12, 1926, was the fifth Canadian branch of the North American organization founded in New York City in 1912. They worked with girls who came before the Juvenile Court, often the first time offenders, to provide mentorship, life skills and employment training in the hopes that they would not reoffend.

Initially, the organization had an office at the Juvenile Court, which at the time was located on Portage Avenue at Sherbrook Street. The move to the house meant that they could provide room and board to girls from outside the city.

Over the years, other agencies, including the Children's Home and the Juvenile Court itself, expanded their programming, making some of the volunteer-based organization's work redundant. The Big Sisters Association of Greater Winnipeg announced in January 1949 that it was winding down operations.

The organization reappeared in Winnipeg in 1970 and since 2001 is known as Big Brothers Big Sisters of Winnipeg. Their new headquarters at 532 Ellice Avenue at Langside is, coincidentally, is just a couple of blocks away from the former Willard Hall.

Official Opening, March 30, 1949 Winnipeg Tribune

In March 1949, the home was turned over to a new women's organization: the Wheelchair Club of Winnipeg. They worked with girls affected by polio by providing employment and life skills. After extensive renovations, a handful of them called the upstairs home.

The last meetings took place at Willard Hall in the spring of 1954. It was then sold to David and Mathilda "Tillie" Jones. He was an Eaton's Employee and she a saleswoman at Maclean Hunter. Tillie was also a member of the Wheelchair Club, though her 1976 obituary does not indicate if she was a board member or a client.

The Jones' continued to own the house for at least the next 12 years, renting out three suites upstairs.

The suites appear to have appealed to single senior citizens. Two funeral notices found for the address were for Gustav Skalin, 82, a retired interior decorator, in October 1967 and Gladys Bissett, 60, of Winnipeg, in July 1975 widow.

The final "Rooms for Rent" ad that can be found in the Winnipeg Free Press was in 1994.

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

20 Sherbrook Street - Misericordia Health Centre (Original Buildings)

Top: Google Street View, 2015
Bottom: November 27, 1923, Winnipeg Tribune

The origins of the Misericordia Hospital go back to 1898 when four sisters of Montréal's les Sœurs de Miséricorde (Sisters of Mercy) arrived in St. Boniface. The order was founded in Quebec in 1848 by Mme Rosalie Jett to provide “spiritual and corporal assistance for poor mothers and unfortunate girls.”

With the assistance of the Archbishop of St. Boniface they purchased a home on Broadway but found there was so much demand for their services that they began to look elsewhere for land on which to build a proper hospital.

At the time, hospital services were limited to the Winnipeg General Hospital, which in 1899 added a small maternity home to its nurses residence on McDermot Avenue. There was also the St. Boniface Hospital. The Salvation Army's maternity hospital on Preston Avenue, (which would become the Grace), was not founded in until 1908 and the Children's was not founded until 1909.

Source: U of M Archives, Medical Campus Architecture Collection

The following year, the Sisters purchased just over two acres of land in residential Winnipeg at 20 Sherbrook Street by the Assiniboine River.

The first hospital building was completed in February 1900 and appears to have opened on the 12th of that month. It measured 44 feet x 66 feet and became known simply as the Winnipeg Maternity Hospital under the supervision of the Sister Superior, Sr. St. Lucie.

The $14,000, three-storey building, (with a tall basement), was funded by the Roman Catholic Church and donations from a number of private citizens. F. W. Thompson furnished a wing and gave a large cash and flour donation. Frederick Scott, of the Scott Furniture Company, furnished a room. Others, like J. H. Ashdown, R. J. Whitla and F. W. Stobart, funded beds on the public wards. 

The basement level contained the kitchen, laundry and related services. The main floor had offices, a parlour and five private rooms. On the second floor there were five more private rooms, a large public ward for convalescents and an operating room. The top floor was a large public maternity ward.

The total capacity of that first hospital was 50 beds. A Free Press story at the time noted that some of the rooms had the best views in all of Winnipeg.

No architect was credited in media stories but the contractor was the Roman Catholic Church's go-to builder J. A. Senocal who had built original parts of the St. Boniface Hospital, St. Mary's Convent and hospitals in Calgary and Edmonton.

Top: December 6, 1906, Winnipeg Free Press

It was assumed that this would be one wing of a much larger facility and in 1906 - 07 a $145,000 expansion took place that more than doubled its size.

The two new buildings, added to the north, created a "T" shaped facility.


The three-storey central building, which stretched eastward towards Maryland Street to create the base of the "T", was the most striking with its stone pillars, large staircase to the main floor entrance and topped with a, (since removed), glassed-in observation tower.

Its basement contained dining rooms for the Sisters, another for nurses, a sitting room for patients and a living room for men. It also housed expanded kitchen facilities.

On the first floor was a “grand entrance hall” with a reception room to one side and an office for the Sister Superior on the other.
Top: St. Luke's Chapel, ca.1916 (
Bottom: ca. 2012 (C. Cassidy)

The most notable feature of the new wing was St. Luke's Chapel on the first floor. Measuring 110 feet x 45 feet, its balcony, which could be closed off from the chapel with sliding glass panels, could be accessed from the hospital's second floor.

The main floor had ten private rooms, the second floor had eight. The third contained operating rooms at the front and a 44-bed public ward.There were also private spaces, such as bedrooms for the priests, Sisters and doctors.

In 1919* the Sisters made formal application to the provincial government to operate as a general hospital. This meant treating a full range of diseases and conditions for both men and women and the introduction of new services such as an X-Ray department and laboratories. (*Some sources say this was 1917, but newspaper stories indicated that the formal application was made in January 1919.)

On May 22, 1968, the Misericordia became a stand-alone corporate entity from the Sisters.

In 1998,  it went from a general hospital to an urgent care centre.

Over the century a number of additions to the site have altered the original hospital buildings.

In 1950, an expansion to the Maryland Building meant the demolition of the eastward run of the centre (entrance) building. The boarded up section at the rear could be seen in 2012 when that 1950 building was demolished, (above).

In 1957, the addition of the Cornish Wing meant a demolition of all but a few metre wide sliver of the original 1900 wing. That piece can be seen on the left side of the photo above.

Also seen in the above image is the cap that was left when the observation dome was removed sometime between 1954 and 1957.


The oldest part of the facility is currently awaiting demolition to make way for phase 2 of a multi-million dollar redevelopment. The building shown above in white will replace it.

Starting in September 2012 much of the wing was closed, including St. Luke's chapel, in anticipation of the demolition but funding for the project has not yet been announced.

My photo album of the Misericordia Health Centre
Redevelopment Update Misericordia Health Centre
"It no longer meets code: President of the Misericordia CTV (2016)
New Wing of Misericordia Now Open CBC (2015)